The Tobi Document Archive
Primary (and a few other) Tobi Sources
of these documents are in our possession; we will add
new entries to the list from time to time. Subject to the constraints
of copyright law and length, we plan to post many of them.
If you would like us to post one now, ask the Webmaster.
|Alkire, William H.
1974 Native Classification of Flora on Woleai Atoll. Micronesica 10(1):1-5.
Mentions plant from Tobi (page 3).
2009 Trolling—Hatohobei Style. Journal of Micronesian Fishing, Spring 2009:9.
Fishing for tuna on Tobi Island.
1955 The Fishing Kite. In Contribution to the History of Fishing in the Southern Seas. Studia Ethnographia Upsaliensia IX. Pp. 29-41, 92. Upsala.
A survey of previously published material. "Concerning the fishing on Tobi, we read that the natives used a long rod—. As far as is known, fishing kites with rods do not occur anywhere else in Oceania." (Page 30).
1835 Lord North's island: narrative of two seamen respecting their sufferings on that island. The Chinese Repository, Art. II. Printed for the proprietors. Item notes: v.3. Pp. 450-457. Original from the University of California, digitized Jan. 31, 2007, Google Books.
A great previously unknown account, taken from Holden and Nute before they were sent home.
1940 Phosphates. Tokyo: Maruzen Company, Inc.
Contains details of mining on Tobi, including tonnage produced in 1937 and 1938. Uncertain if this title is correct. Selected pages. In Japanese.
|Atchley, Jennifer and Paul Alan Cox
1985 Breadfruit Fermentation in Micronesia. Economic Botany. Vol. 39, No. 3 (July-Sept.). Pp. 326-335
Some on Peliliu claimed Tobians fermented breadfruit in pits.
|Baldwin, Wayne J.
1977 Kite Fishing in Palau. Kitelines 1(3): 3, 32, 39.
Description of kite fishing techniques on Tobi with photograph of Patris Tachemaremacho from R.E. Johannes, Words of the Lagoon.
|Barr, J. (see also Risien, J.M.)
2006 Community-based sea turtle monitoring and management at Helen Reef, Hatohobei State, Republic of Palau. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 204 pp.
|Beasley, Harry G.
1928 Fish Hooks. Pacific Islands Records. London: Sealey, Service and Co., Ltd.
Drawings, photographs, and discussion of Tobian fish hooks and their comparison with other Pacific Island hooks. Selected pages.
|Bender, Byron W., Ward H. Goodenough, Frederick H. Jackson, Jeffrey C. Marck, Kenneth L. Rehg, Ho-min Sohn, Stephen Trussel, Judith W. Wang
2003 Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions: 2. Oceanic Linguistics. Vol. 42, No. 2 (December). Pp. 271-358.
1988 The Wandering Life Among Unreliable Islanders: The Hamburg Sudsee-Expedition in Micronesia. Journal of Pacific History 23 (1):95-101.
Contains dates and personnel of Germanys Thilenius Expedition, which visited Tobi in August of 1909.
|Black, Peter W.
n.d. (a) Disaster and Demography. Unpublished paper. 38 pp.
Reviews demographic history of Tobi up to 1968.
|n.d. (b) Fishing Lore of Tobi. Prepared for Department
of Fisheries, U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, 1968. 134 pp.
Fishing techniques, canoe building, a version of the Ramoparuhe story, an old fishing song, and much else.
|n.d. (e) Medicinal Recipes of
Tobi. Prepared for Entomology Laboratory, U. S. Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, 1968. 8 pp.
Privately owned Tobian medicines, with plant identifications.
|n.d. (h) Tobi Island. Report Prepared for Palau
Community Action Agency High School Curriculum Project. 1972. 16 pp.
Missing page 10. Contains a version of Ramoparuhe story.
n.d. (c) Letter to Robert Johannes. January 11,
1979. 14 pp.
|n.d. (d) Man and Fish on Tobi: Culture, Nature and
the Seas Bounty in a Western Caroline Society. XIV Pacific Science
Congress. Khabarovsk, U.S.S.R., August, 1979. 51 pp.
Tobi as a fishing culture. Written in 1977; lightly edited in 2005.
|n.d. (f) Notes
on a Tobian Dance. Culture as Semiotic. George Mason University, April,
The dance in question is the so-called "gift dance."
|n.d. (g) Policy
Recommendations for Securing the Republics Southern Border. Letter
to Attorney General of Palau. November 5, 1990. 2 pp.
Recommendations about Helen Reef.
|n.d. (h) 15 Letters from Palau. Summer 2006.|
Culture: Modern Life on a Micronesian Atoll. Dissertation. 422 + xvi.
Of course its not an atoll, at all.
|1978 (a) Crime
and Culture: Tobian Response to Attempted Murder. Midwest Review 3:56-69.
The paper builds on a case which is also reported in Black 1977 and Black 1991.
|1978 (b) The Teachings of Father Marino:
Aspects of Tobian Catholicism. In Mission, Church and
Sect in Oceania. James Boutilier, Daniel Hughes and Sharon Tiffany, eds.
Pp. 307-354. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
A revision of a chapter in Black 1977, reprinted with slight changes in Black 1988. The missionary who converted most people on Tobi to Roman Catholicism is misidentified here as Fr. Marino when in fact he was Fr. Elias Fernandez. Errata sheet attached.
|1979 The Tobi Stone Figurine.
In Appendix 7: Tobi Island Artifacts. Archaeological Test Excavations,
Palau Islands. Micronesica. Supplement No. 1. Douglas Osborne. Pp. 349-353.
Guam: University of Guam.
Contains a version of the Ramoparuhe story as well as an account of the finding of a Tobian antiquity.
for Taro on Tobi. In Persistence and Exchange. Roland Force and
Brenda Bishop, eds. Pp. 25-36. Honolulu: Pacific Science Association.
Tobian fishing as symbolically important action.
`In-Charge Complex and Tobian Political Culture. Pacific Studies
Tobian politics, internal and external.
|1983 Conflict, Morality
and Power in a Western Caroline Society. Journal of the Polynesian Society
How the Tobian chief traditionally exerted authority. Contains an account of a meeting.
Anthropology of Tobacco Use: Tobian Data and Theoretical Issues. Journal
of Anthropological Research 40:457-503.
Role of tobacco within Tobian society.
Gossip and Suicide: Meaning and Action in Tobian Folk Psychology. In
Person, Self and Experience: Exploring Pacific Ethnopsychologies. Geoffrey
White and John Kirkpatrick, eds. Pp. 245-300. Berkeley: University of California
Analysis of a case of attempted suicide on Tobi.
Apotheosis of Marino: Foundations of Tobian Catholicism. In
Transformations of Christianity. George Saunders, ed. Pp. 47-72. Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press.
Reprint with small changes of Black 1978b.
by Common Sense: Local Understandings and the Resolution of Conflict.
In Conflict Resolution in Cross Cultural Perspective. Kevin Avruch,
Peter W. Black and Joseph Scimecca, eds. Pp. 145-164. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Use of case reported in Black 1978a for methodological purposes.
|1992 Fourteen Ethnographic
Sketches from Tobi. In Sociology: Analysis and Application.
Joseph Scimecca and Arnold Sherman. Pp. 86-87, 102, 152, 176, 205, 236,
253, 287, 343, 369, 417, 444, 480. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
A set of one or two page essays illustrating sociological topics (e.g., marriage, religion) with Tobian material.
Domestication of Catholicism on Tobi. Pacific Studies 17:1-28.
A revised version of the conversion story, taking some account of published missionary accounts.
and Alcohol on Palau and Tobi. In Garland Encyclopedia of World
Music: Volume 9, Australia and the Pacific Islands. Adrienne Kaeppler and
Jacob Love, eds. Pp. 180-183. New York: Garland Publishing Company.
Drinking and singing on Tobi and in Palau contrasted.
|1998 Macro Issues in Micronesia. ICAR Newsletter 9: 12-13.|
for the Future of Helen Reef: Socio-Cultural Features of the Tobian Community
and Their Implications: A Report and Recommendations. Report Prepared
for the Community Conservation Network for Use in Aiding the Development
of a Management Plan for Helen Reef by the People of Tobi, Republic of Palau.
January, 2000. 17 pp.
Ideas for building community capacity to manage Helen Reef.
|2005 Community and the Internet: Tobi Islanders in a Globalizing World. Global Studies Bulletin, Spring 2005: 4-5|
|2007 An Ethnopsychological Perspective on Migration: A Small Island Example, Prepared for Seminar on Migration, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, May 4, 2007|
|Black, Peter W., and Robert Johannes
1981 Fishing in the South West Islands. In Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. Robert Johannes. Pp. 85-100. Berkeley: University of California Press.
A chapter built on fishing data collected by Black.
|Bolander, Louis H.
1936 The Vincennes, World Traveler of the Old Navy. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 62:825-831.
History of Vincennes, U.S.N., which visited Tobi as part of the Holden episode.
|Borja, Paul J.
1982 Air Force Stages Mercy Food Drop. Pacific Daily News. January 23.
20 days of food dropped to 24 people flying the American flag on Helen Reef.
|Boyer, D.L. and P.A. Davies
1982 Flow Past a Circular Cylinder on a β -Plane. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Vol. 306, No. 1496 (October 15). Pp. 533-556.
Contains information about the Tobi wake and cites an unpublished 1981 paper by J. Imberger and R. Johannes: New island wake form described by native fishermen yields estimate of horizontal exchange.
1974 With Their Islands Around Them. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Robert Owens 1969 trip to the Southwest Islands in a ketch. Reports that shipwrecked Indonesians were living on Merir. Another group was taken off by Tobians in 1970. Helen Reef was in good shape. Selected pages.
|Browning, Robert Lee-Wright
1885-1886 The Cruise of the United States Sloop-of-War "Vincennes," Circumnavigating, 1833-1836. The United Service: A Monthly Review of Military and Naval Affairs 13 and 14:576-585; 717-728 (v. 13); 81-88; 194-210; 265-278 (v.14).
From the journal of Robert Lee-Wright Browning, Lieutenant U.S. Navy. Through chapter 12 only. Describes the visit of the Vincennes to "Toby" as part of the Horace Holden episode. Much interesting descriptive material. See also "Notes on the South Sea Islands by Lieutenant Browning, on Board the `Vincennes, Circumnavigating in 1835-36, J. H. Aulick Commanding." In Browning Family Papers, Box 141, 405 A- 012, 4, 224. Washington, DC: Library of Congress and Peter Black's notes on Browning's notes.
|Bryan, E. H., Jr.
n.d. (a) Data and Bibliography Concerning Sonsorol, Pulo Ana, Merir and Tobi Islands. Memorandum for the Director, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, February 5, 1975.
One page. Gives population figures.
|n.d. (b) Southwest Islands.
Two pages giving areas, names (19 for Tobi) and maps.
|1970 Land in Micronesia and Its Resources:
An Annotated Bibliography. Compiled for the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands. Honolulu: Pacific Scientific Information Center, Bernice P. Bishop
Contains a good discussion of pre-1970 sources as well as population and other data.
|Bryan, Patrick G.
1975 Marine Survey of Helen Reef, Palau District, 12-17 April 1975. Prepared for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
|Bryan, Patrick G., and Daniel B. McConnell
1976 Status of Giant Clam Stocks (Tridacnidae) on Helen Reef, Palau, Western Caroline Islands, April 1975. Marine Fisheries Review 38(4):15-18.
Reduction in population numbers of three species (of giant clam) attributed to human exploitation.
|Buschmann, Rainer F.
1996 Tobi Captured: Converging Ethnographic and Colonial Visions on a Caroline Island. Isla 4(2):317-340.
German anthropology on Tobi in 1909.
|Buse [No first name given]
1910 Eine reise nach den sudlich von Palau gelegenen inseln. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 21:937-938. Berlin.
English translation available of this account of a trip through the Southwest Islands by a German colonial official. In German.
1969 Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of Sonsorol-Tobi. Oceania Linguistic Monograph No. 12. Sydney: University of Sydney.
Originally published in 1951 as CIMA Report No. 30. Based on work in Eang (Palau) primarily with Sonsorol informants.
1991 Two Palauan Officials Charged. Pacific Daily News, February 11, p.1.
The two officials (a Senator and a Presidential Special Assistant) were charged with forging permits for a foreign vessel to fish in Helen Reef.
1899 The Caroline Islands. London: Methuen.
Page 170. "Tobi, her massive platforms topped by stone images of her Yari or ancient heroes, gazing out upon the deep." Also contains material about OKeefe, Sonsorol, Mapia. Selected pages.
|Christmann, Helmut, Peter Hempenstall,
and Dirk Anthony Ballendorf
1991 Die Karolinen-Inseln in Deutscher Zeit. Hamburg: Lit Verlag. Pp. 223, 247.
Two quotations about Tobi from Dr. Buse, the German government doctor, made on the occasion of his visit to Tobi.
1957 Lady with a Spear. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Chapter 12 (South of the Palaus) describes her visit to the Southwest Islands on a U.S. Navy field trip. She dove on all the islands except Pulo Ana. Photographs. Southwest Island spears reported to be more complex than those in use on Palau at this time. Selected pages.
|Community Conservation Network
2000 Marine Resources of Helen Reef in the Year 2000: A Summary Report of the Helen Reef Baseline Monitoring Expeditions sponsored by the Hatohobei Natural Resource Management Program, Hatohobei State, Republic of Palau.
|Crombie, Ronald I. and Gregory K. Pregill
1999 A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Palau Islands (Republic of Belau), Oceania. Herpetological Monographs, Vol. 13, pp. 28-80.
Contains a short list of Tobi Island creatures.
1986 Review of Protected Aera Systems in Oceanaia. International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources and United Nations Environment Programme.
|Damm, H. and E. Sarfert
1935 Handel und Schiffahrt. In Ergebnisse der Südsee Expedition 1908-1910. II. Ethnographie: B. Mikronesien Band 6. Inseln um Truk. G. Thilenius, ed. Hamburg: Friederichsen, De Gruyter & Co. m.b.H. Pp. 82-108.
Micronesian navigation. In German. Selected pages.
|Decker, John Alvin
1940 Labor Problems in the Pacific Mandates. London: Oxford University Press.
Chapter 2 (Japanese Immigrant Labor) and Chapter 5 (Native Contract Labor in the Phosphate Mines) give details of working conditions during the Japanese mandate period as well as tonnages of phosphate ore, including that on Tobi. Selected pages.
2009 The Tobians: thankful to life and with no "thank you" in the Tobian language. Odysseus, July: 18-19. In Bulgarian. English translation.
This brief interview of Peter Black appeared in Odysseus, a Bulgarian travel magazine.
Demma LJ, McQuiston JH, Nicholson WL, Murphy SM, Marumoto P, Sengebau-Kingzio JM, et al.
|Dodge, Ernest S.
1965 New England and the South Seas. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
A few mentions of Tobi, Horace Holden, and the Mentor. Selected pages.
|Donaldson, Terry J.
2002 High islands versus low islands: a comparison of fish faunal composition of the Palau Islands. Environmental Biology of Fishes 65: 241-248.
Compares species similarity, richness, and diversity among coral reef fish between the Southwest Islands and the islands of the main Palauan archipelago.
|1996 Fishes of the Remote Southwestern
Palau Islands: A Zoogeographic Perspective. Pacific Science 50(3):285-308.
From the 1992 Nature Conservancy Expedition to the Southwest Islands. Contains lists of fish and discussion of habitat. 602 species were observed.
Durand AM, Kuartei S, Togamae I, Sengebau M, Demma L, Nicholson W, et al.
1936 Tobi. In Ergebnisse der Südsee Expedition 1908-1910. II. Ethnographie: B. Mikronesien Band 9. Westkarolinen 2. Halband: Tobi und Ngulu. Georg Thilenius, ed. Volume 9. Hamburg: Friederichsen, De Gruyter & Co. m.b.H. Pp. 1-200.
Title translates as "Results of the South Sea Expedition 1908-1910. " II. Ethnography: B. Micronesia. Volume 9. Western Carolines. A very rich source of information about Tobi, with many drawings and plates. Translated by Paul Markham. In German.
|1936 Sonsorol. Ergebnisse der Südsee
Expedition 1908-1910. II. Ethnographie: B. Mikronesien Band 9. Westkarolinen
1. Halband: Songosor,
Pur, Merir. Georg Thilenius, ed. Volume 9. Hamburg: Friederichsen, De Gruyter & Co. m.b.H. P. 53.
This fragment mentions a trip from Sonsorol to a village on Helen Reef. Translated.
Kulturelle Stellung der Westkarolinischen Inseln Songosor, Pur, Merir, Tobi
und Ngulu. In Ergebnisse der Südsee Expedition 1908-1910.
II. Ethnography: B Micronesia. Georg Thilenius, ed. Volume 9. Hamburg: Friederichsen,
de Gruyter & Company, m.b.H. Pp. 245-254.
Title translates as "The Cultural Situation of the West Caroline Islands, Songosor, Pur, Merir, Tobi and Ngulu." A discussion of the settlement history of these islands. Translated by K. J. Dennison. In German.
1969 Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Vol. 2. Washington: Navy Department, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Naval History Division.
A U.S. Navy destroyer, the French, rescued a U.S. Army freighter off the reef at Helen Reef in July 1945, p. 450.
1973 Pacific Oceanic Islands Recommended for Designation as Islands For Science. Proceedings and Papers, Regional Symposium on Conservation of Nature—Reefs and Lagoons. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. Pp. 26-305.
1983 Avifauna of the Southwest Islands of Palau. Atoll Research Bulletin No 267:1-22.
Flying creatures on Tobi, Helen, and the other Southwest Islands.
1931 Mi Excursion a la Isla de Togobei: 10-27 Febrero 1931. El Siglo de las Misiones 18:305-309.
Conversion of Tobi Islanders in August 1931. Translation provided by F. Hezel. In Spanish.
Excursion a la Islas Lejanas de Sonsorol. Angel
A trip to the Southwest Islands in February, 1934 including a stop at Tobi and Helen. Translation provided by F. Hezel. In Spanish.
|1936 Excursion Apostolica a la Islas Lejanas.
A trip to the Southwest Islands in February, 1935, including a stop at Tobi and Helen. Translation provided by F. Hezel. In Spanish.
1981 Die Hamburger Sudsee-Expedition: Uber Ethnographie und Kolonialismus. Frankfurt am Main: Syndikat Verlag.
Dates, photographs, and maps of the visit of the Thilenius expedition to Tobi. Selected pages. In German.
|Fitehiri Farauri Faruheri Hatohobei
1983 Hufehiri Farau Ri Faruheri Hatohobei. Eang, Koror.
Constitution of Hatohobei State, adopted by Hatohobei Constitutional Convention. In Tobian and English.
Folk Museum of Ota City
|Foreign Office, Colonial Division, Berlin
1901 Seizure of Tobi and Helen Reef. Trust Territory Archives Microfilm, Vol I. Ref. CRS G1 Item 4 Document 27 Pp. 114-127.
English translations of German telegrams, orders, and reports on the seizure.
1907 Eine reise nach Palau, Sonsol und Tobi, Oktober-Dezember, 1906. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 14:659-668. Berlin.
An account of a trip to Tobi by a German colonial administrator. In German.
|Fulton, Chester A.
1969 Phosphates of Foreign Countries. In Phosphoric Acid, Phosphates and Phosphatic Fertilizers. W. H. Waggaman, ed. New York: Hafner Publishing Company. 2nd Edition.
Gives phosphate production figures for Japanese mandated islands, including Tobi. Selected pages.
1855 Vestiges of Buddhism in Micronesia. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol 5 (1855-1856). P. 194.
Claims that Tobians were mixed-up Buddhists.
1993 Marine Turtles of the Southwest Islands. A report to the Nature Conservancy, Asia-Pacific Program for the Republic of Palau.
|Golbuu, Y., J. Andrew, G. Mereb, R. van Woesik
2013 Recovery of Coral Populations at Helen Reef Atoll After a Major Bleaching Event. PICRC Technical Report 13-03 (July).
|Goodenough, Ward H.
1953 Native Astronomy in the Central Carolines. Museum Monographs. Philadelphia: The University Museum.
Carolinian star names and month names. Tobian names taken from Eilers 1936. Information on sidereal compass, almanac, and navigation.
1931 Auras de Carolinas. El Siglo de las Misiones 18:208-210.
Missionary report, including information on Tobians. Translation provided by F. Hezel. In Spanish.
Gulick, L. H.
1965 Culture and Biological Adaptation. American Anthropologist, New Series. Vol. 67, No. 5, Part 1 (October), pp. 1174-1197.
Contains a list of Micronesian atolls and their populations, including Tobi.
1846 A Vocabulary of the Dialect of Tobi, or Lord Norths Island. In Ethnology and Philology. Horatio Hale. Pp. 425-429 (107-108). United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839,1840, 1841,1841 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Lee and Blanchard. Reprinted 1968, Ridgewood, NJ: Gregg Press.
Material in this vocabulary was taken directly from Horace Holden, himself, perhaps in Hawaii. Pickering is compared. Pages seem out of order.
1846 Tobi or Lord Norths
Island. In Ethnology and Philology. Horatio Hale. Pp. 77-80
(20). United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839,1840,
1841,1841 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Lee and Blanchard.
Reprinted 1968. Ridgewood, NJ: Gregg Press.
|Hamner, W.M. and I.R. Hauri
1981 Effects of Island Mass: Water Flow and Plankton Pattern Around a Reef in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, Australia. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26, No. 6 (Nov.), pp. 1084-1102.
Contains information about the Tobi Island wake.
1928 On the Islanders of Togobei (Nevils Island). Jinruigaku Zaashi (Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo) 43(484):63-70.
Includes good photographs of Tobians. In Japanese.
Tattooing of the Western Micronesians. Jinruigaku Zaashi (Journal of
the Anthropological Society of Tokyo) 43(3):120-152.
Good illustrations of Tobi and other (including Fais) tattoos. Connects Tobi tattoos to religious beliefs. In Japanese
|1928 Die Westmikronesier: eine vorlaufige
Mitteilung uber die physische Anthropologie der Mikronesier. Arbeiten Aus
dem Anatomischen Institut der Kaiserlich-Japanischen Universitat zu Sendai
Measurements of people, including some Tobians. In German.
|1938 The Japanese and the South Seas Islanders:
An Anthropological Study. Cultural Nippon 6(4).
Measurements of head shapes and sizes claimed to distinguish Tobi people from other Southwest Islanders.
Government, Republic of Palau
2000 Project to Eradicate Alien Rats on Helen Island, Helen Reef, Hatohobei State, Republic of Palau, Micronesia, June 1, 2000.
Republic of Palau
1983 Constitution of Hatohobei State (see Fitehiri Farauri Faruheri Hatohobei).
Constitution of Hatohobei State, adopted by Hatohobei Constitutional Convention. In Tobian and English.
|Hatohobei State Legislature, Republic
1990 Second Hatohobei State Legislature, Fifth Regular Session Resolution No. 2-5-2, D1, September 1990.
A resolution requesting National Department of Resources and Development assistance in surveying Helen Reef resources.
|Helen Reef Newsletter
1999 Newsletter, September 7.
Reef Ownership Public Meeting: Minutes
1999 Koror, Palau, August 20.
1927 Tobi Island August 27-September 4, 1909. In Hamburger Wissenschaftliche Stiftung. Ergebinesse der Sudsee-Expedition 1908-1910 I. Georg Thilenius, ed. Pp. 200-209. Hamburg: De Gruyter.
Daily record of German expedition to Tobi. Translated by Rainer Buschmann. In German.
Hester, Frank J., and Everet C. Jones
|Hezel, Francis X.
1978. The Role of the Beachcomber in the Carolines. In The Changing Pacific. Neil Gunson, ed. pp. 261-72. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Hezel mentions the Mentor, Horace Holden, and Holden's Narrative.
|1979 Foreign Ships in Micronesia: A Compendium of Ship Contacts with the Caroline and Marshall Islands 1521-1885. Saipan, Mariana Islands: Trust Territory Historic Preservation Office and the U.S. Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service.|
Catholic Church in Palau. In The Catholic Church in Micronesia:
Historical Essays on the Catholic Church in the Caroline-Marshall Islands.
Chicago: Loyola University Press.
1993 Mental Illness in Micronesia. Micronesian Counselor Occasional Paper,
The Catholic Church
in Micronesia: Historical essays on the Catholic Church in the Caroline-Marshall
Islands. Micronesian Seminar. http://www.micsem.org/pubs/books/catholic/.
Online second edition of 1991 volume, slightly revised and updated.
|Hezel, Francis X. and
Jay D. Dobbin
1996 The Distribution of Spirit Possession and Trance in Micronesia. Pacific Studies, 19(2), 105-148.
Contains a section on the Southwest Islands, including Tobi.
Hobbs, William Herbert
|1944 Mountain Growth, a Study of the Southwestern Pacific Region. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 88, No. 4 (October 18). Pp. 221-268.
Theories about island formation, using Tobi as example.
1836 A Narrative of the Shipwreck, Captivity and Sufferings of Horace Holden and Benjamin H. Nute. Boston: Russell, Shattuck. Reprinted 1975. Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon Press. With a foreward by Keith Huntress.
Reprint contains much additional material.
1936 Canoes of Oceania, Vol. 1. In The Canoes of Polynesia, Fiji and Micronesia. A.C. Haddon and James Hornell. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication No. 27. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.
Technical discussion of Tobian canoes.
1991 Palau Tourist Brochure Gave Wrong Origin. Pacific Daily News, July 1.
An essay pointing out that the Palau Visitors Authority erred in claiming a Turkese origin for the Southwest Islands.
|2002 Rural Education in Palau: A Second Look at Tobi Elementary School. San Diego State University, 2002. 79 pages.|
2000 Newsletter. Koror, Palau. September.
|Hunter-Anderson, Rosalind L.
1992 Archaeological Investigations in the Southwest Islands of Palau (Tobi, Merir, Pulo Ana, Sonsorol, Fana) June 1-19, 1992. Draft Final Report. 57 pp. Agana, Guam: Micronesian Archaeological Research Services. Abstract.
Research carried out in association with the Nature Conservancys Rapid Ecological Assessment of Palau: Part I June 1992 Natural and Cultural Resources Survey of the Southwest Islands of Palau. Contains maps, drawings, photographs. Includes carbon dates from Tobi.
1946 Pacific Islands Pilot. Vol. I. Seventh Edition. London: Admiralty.
Selected pages for Caroline Islands, including Tobi and Helen Reef. Contains chart.
Islands Pilot. Vol. I. Eighth Edition. London: Admiralty.
Islands Pilot. Vol. I. Ninth Edition. London: Admiralty.
Selected pages for Caroline Islands, including Tobi and Helen Reef. Contains chart.
Islands Pilot. Vol. I. Ninth Edition, Supplement No. 6. London:
Selected pages for Caroline Islands, including Tobi and Helen Reef. Contains chart.
1941 Materials of the Micronesian Higher Fungi. Journal of Japanese Botany 17(3):175-188.
A literature review listing several fungus species found on Tobi. In Japanese.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature
2008 Historical significance of the Southwest Islands of Palau. In Islands of Inquiry: Colonisation, seafaring and the archaeology of maritime landscapes. Geoffrey Clark, Foss Leach, and Sue O'Connor, eds. Canberra: ANU E Press. Pp. 326-338.
|Intoh, Michiko and Masaki Eda
2008 A Zooarchaeological and Ethnographic Study of Frigatebird Remains from Tobi Island in Micronesia. People and Culture in Oceania 24: 67-79.
|Intoh, M. and R. Ono
2006 Reconnaissance archaeological research on Tobi Island, Palau. People and Culture in Oceania 22:53-83.
1980 Father Francisco Miedes Discovers the Caroline Islands Before They Are Discovered. Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu 49: 393-417.
A possible early report of Tobi. Article describes how Caroline Islands drift voyagers were interviewed in the Talaud Islands by a Jesuit priest. Also available are translated excerpts from Father Miedes's report.
|Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research
1977 Report of Feasibility Study on Skipjack pole-and-line Fisheries in the Micronesian Waters. JAMARC Report No. 5, 1976.
Includes data on water temperatures, thermoclines, and maps of Helen Reef and Southwest Islands. Selected pages.
of Feasibility Study on Skipjack pole-and-line Fisheries in the Micronesian
Waters. JAMARC Report No. 17, 1977.
Johannes, Robert E.
|1981 Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and
Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. Robert Johannes. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Chapter Eight: Island Currents (pages 101-109); Chapter Nine: Fishhooks (pages 110-123); Glossary of Tobian Words (pages 203-205).
1986 A Review of Information on the Subsistence Use of Green and Hawskbill Sea Turtles on Islands Under United States Jurisdiction in the Western Pacific Ocean. National Marine Fisheries Service Administrative Report SWR-86-2, January 1986. Pp. 10-11.
1888 Bericht des Kapt. K. Jost von der deutschen Bark "Auguste" uber seine Reise von Cardiff nach Hongkong vom 7 September 1885 bis zum 30 Januar 1886. Annalen der Hydrographie und maritimen Meteorologie, 16. Jahrg., Heft 9: 385-393.
Title translates as "Report of Captain K. Jost of the German Bark Auguste about his voyage from Cardiff to Hong Kong, September 7, 1885 to January 30, 1886. " In German.
1891 Feindseliges Verhalten der Bewohner
der Insel Tobi (Lord North-Insel). Annalen der Hydrographie und maritimen
Meteorologie, 19. Jahrg., Heft 4: 148.
1943 Pacific island folklore.
English summary. Includes Tobian monkeyman photograph. In Japanese.
1942 Nations of the Pacific Ocean and their political science. Tokyo: Iwani Shotenkanko.
English summary. Includes Tobian monkeyman photograph. In Japanese.
2008. Ancient Navigators of the Pacific. Sea Stories, Vernal 2008.
Tracking sea turtles in the Western Pacific.
|Klebingat, Fred K.
1977 Summer—North Atlantic. Sea History 6:34-38.
Contains details of the bark Anna on which Klebingat sailed past Tobi in 1907.
|1972 Personal correspondence
March 30, 1972, April 17, 1973, June 20, 1973.
Describes his 1907 sighting of Tobi from the sailing ship, Anna. "You may give the natives also my regards and tell them that I passed their island 66 years ago," he wrote in June, 1973.
Klingman, Laurence and Gerald
1885 Aus dem Reisebericht des Kapt. E. Kraeft, Fuhrer der deutschen Bark "Karl." Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meterology, 13. Jahrg., Heft 4:205-208.
Title translates as "From the Log of Captain E. Kraeft, Captain of the German Bark `Karl." Contains a passage titled Die Bewohner der Tobi-Insel (the inhabitants of Tobi Island). In German.
2007 The structure of convective activities on extreme rainfall observed on 2005/06 winter over tropical western Pacific. Submitted to JMSJ Meteorological Research Note.
Rainfall observation sites included Helen Reef and Tobi Island.
1908 Die Ersten Christen auf der Sonserolinsel Tobi. Aus Den Missionen der Rhein-Westfalischen Kapusiner-Ordensprovinz auf Den Karolinen, Marianen, und Palau-Inseln in der Deutschen Sudsee: Jahresbericht 1908 19:40-41.
Title translates as "The First Christian from the Sonsorolese Island of Tobi." Translation provided by F. Hezel. In German.
Lessa, William A.
1977 Traditional Uses of Vascular
Plants of Ulithi Atoll, With Comparative Notes. Micronesica 13:129-190.
|1978 The Mapia Islands and their
Affinities. In The Changing Pacific: Essays in Honour of H.E. Maude.
Niel Gunson, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp 228-246.
Discusses the evidence for a link between Tobi and Mapia.
Personal correspondence February
1922 Untitled. El Siglo de las Misiones 9:146-147.
An account of mission activity. Mama Rosa of Merir is mentioned. Translated by F. Hezel. In Spanish.
|Loscalzo, Aunchalee Elaine
2006 Populations in transition, medicines in motion: Migration, health, and healing in Echang hamlet, Republic of Palau, Micronesia. Dissertation. 388 pages. AAT 3216071.
1902 Recollections of Horace Holden. Oregon Historical Quarterly 3(2):164-217.
This text was corrected by Horace Holden, who was living in Oregon at the time.
|Maragos, J.E., et al.
1994 Natural and Cultural Resources of the Southwest Islands of Palau, Synthesis Report: Rapid Ecological Assessment of Palau: Part I June 1992. Koror: Bureau of Resources and Development, Republic of Palau.
This final report of the Nature Conservancy expedition to the Southwest Islands was prepared for the Bureau of Resources and Development, Republic of Palau.
J.E. and C.W. Cook, Jr.
1995 The 1991-1992 rapid ecological assessment of Palau's coral reefs. Coral Reefs 14:237-252.
|Marianas Variety and News
1983 Four Indonesians Stranded in Palau Since October. Marianas Variety and News, January 21, p. 5.
While stranded on Tobi, one of these people from Halmahera gave birth to a baby girl, who was given the name Tobiana.
|Martin, Kenneth R., ed.
1980 Naked and a Prisoner: Captain Edward C. Barnards Narrative of Shipwreck in Palau 1832-1833. Sharon, MA: Kendall Whaling Museum.
Written by the Captain of the Mentor, this account covers the same events as does Holden, including their captivity on Tobi. Part one, part two, part three.
McKnight, Robert K.
|n.d.(a) Imperfect Interface:
The Confrontation of Two Assimilation Models. Paper presented at annual
meetings of the Southwestern Anthropological Association, San Francisco,
CA, April 1976.
Contrasts innovation and change in Palau and the Southwest Islands.
|n.d. (b) March 6, 1962 Letter
to Douglas Osbourne. U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Island Archives.
Discusses drift voyages in the Southwest Islands.
|n.d.(c) Two Models of Assimilation
and Acculturation in Micronesia. Paper presented at annual meeting of the
Southwestern Anthropological Association, Tuscon, AZ, April 29, 1971.
An earlier version of n.d. (a).
1791 Voyages Made in the Years 1788 and 1789 from China to the North-West Coast of America. Reprinted [date unknown]. Bibliotheca Australiana # 22. Amsterdam: Da Capo Press.
On March 9 and 10, 1788, the ship Iphigenia under Captain Douglas stopped at what he called Johnstones Island and which was probably Tobi. This account briefly describes the island and its people. Selected pages.
|Meredith, Joseph C.
1959 The Tattooed Man. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce.
A retelling of the Mentor story. Interesting preface recounting the authors 1954 visit to Tobi. Illustrations and maps.
|1997 A Handful of Emeralds: On
Patrol with the Hanna in the Postwar Pacific. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute
Account of a 1954 stop at Tobi where the author met Fermin Andrew. Contains several errors in its recounting of the contact history of the Southwest Islands. Includes photographs of the Hanna. Selected pages.
2009 Palauan Children under Japanese Rule: Their Oral Histories. Senri Ethnological Reports, 87. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
1970 Canoes in Micronesia. Micronesian Working Papers, Number two. Guam: University of Guam, Gallery of Art.
Micronesian sailing canoes—Satawal, Ponape, Truk, Yap, Palau, and Tobi?
1939 Cruise Through Tobi and Sonsorol. Kagaku Nanyo 2(2).
Typescript of English translation. Photographs. Description of a 1937 journey through the islands, including stops at Tobi and Helen Reef.
|Naval Intelligence Division
1945 Pacific Islands. Vol. IV. Western Pacific (New Guinea and Islands Northward). B.R. 519 C. Geographical Handbook Series. U.K.
Tobi and Helen Reef. Selected pages.
|Nettle, Daniel and Suzanne Romaine
2000 Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tobi—language, fish, fish hooks. Selected pages.
1967 The Art of Oceania. In African and Oceanic Art. Margaret Trowell and Hans Nevermann, eds. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Contains photographs of an old Tobian carving.
1969 Pirogues Oceaniennes. Troisieme Partie: Micronesie. III F. Iles Palau et dependances. Neptunia 96:13-20. (Supp.13-20).
Good drawings of Tobi canoes. In French.
1990 From Russia with Hope. Pacific Islands Monthly, November. P. 16.
Discusses Russians in Helen Reef and in the Trusteeship Council. It also asserts that Indonesia has a nominal claim on Helen Reef.
|North American Review
1836 Horace Holdens Narrative. North American Review 43(92 July):206-226.
Review of Holdens book plus "a few facts obtained from him in conversation."
Office of the Chief of Naval
1946 Economic Survey of Micronesia: Summary of Findings and Recommendations. Volume 1. Honolulu: U.S. Commercial Company.
Contains population numbers for Tobi. Selected pages.
|Orzalli, John B., Captain USN (ret.)
2005 The Western Pacific Cruise of USS Leray Wilson (DE-414), 1957 as remembered by John B. Orzalli, Matlacha, Florida, January 2005.
The Leray Wilson stopped briefly at Tobi, Helen Reef, and the other Southwest Islands.
1974 Environmental and Economic Effects of Phosphate Mining Carried Out by the Japanese on Sonsorol and Tobi Islands. Memorandum to District Administrator, Palau, U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Koror, Palau, November 18.
Reviews Japanese mining activity on Tobi.
|Pacific Islands Monthly
1993 The Belle of Tobi. Pacific Islands Monthly, December. P. 21.
This is an extended joke about the national census.
|Palau Community Action Agency
1974 A Rubekul Belau. Koror, Palau: PCAA.
Information about the chiefs of the Southwest Islands (in Palauan).
|Palau Historic Preservation Office,
Division of Cultural Affairs, Ministry of Community and Cultural Affairs
n.d. Ferehuheh Diangel at Hatohobei, A Canoe House in Tochobei (Tobi). Brochure.
|Palau Society of Historians and
Bureau of Arts and Culture
2002 Entertainment. Traditional and Customary Practices, English Series 8. Koror, Palau: Bureau of Arts and Culture, Ministry of Community and Cultural Affairs. Pp. 50-57.
Information about feasts, dances, and songs on Tobi. Selected pages.
Paullin, Charles Oscar
|Petty, Bruce M.
2006 Saipan: Oral Histories of the Pacific War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Oral history of Manuel S. Sablan, a sailor from Angaur who spent 27 days on Tobi Island in 1944. Selected pages.
|Quackenbush, Edward Miller
1968 From Sonsorol to Truk: A Dialect Chain. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.
Publication details from Scientific Commons.
|Purcell, David C.
1976 The Economics of Exploitation: The Japanese in the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, 1915-1940. Journal of the Polynesian Society 11(3):189-211.
Japan purchased mining rights to Tobi phosphate from Germany in 1922.
|Rehg, Kenneth L.
1995 The Significance of Linguistic Interaction Spheres in Reconstructing Micronesian Prehistory. Oceanic Linguistics 24(2): 305-326.
This article, which contains a good bibliography, refers to the Southwest Island language as Pul, a Trukic outlier.
|Richard, Dorothy E.
1957 United States Naval Administration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Office of Chief of Naval Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
On October 6, 1945, 439 Japanese troops on Tobi surrendered to the Americans. Selected pages.
|Risien, Julie M. and Bryan Tilt
2008 A Comparative Study of Community-based Sea Turtle Management in Palau: Key Factors for Successful Implementation. Conservation and Society 6(3): 225-237.
Investigates social, political, and cultural aspects of sea turtle management led by the Tobian community at Helen Reef.
|Romilly, Hugh Hastings
1887 The Western Pacific and New Guinea. 2nd edition. London: John Murray.
Contains an account of Bully Hayes. Selected pages.
|Rundell, Rebecca J.
2005 The Land Snails of Belau: Survey of the 16 States. 19 pp.
Contains data on land snails for Hatohobei State.
1911 Zur Kenntnis der Schiffahrtskunde der Karoliner. Im Korrespondenz-Blatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschicht. Nr 8/12 Braunschweig.
Carolinian navigation. In German.
1953 Die Erscheinungsformen des Männerhauses und das Klubwesen in Mikronesien: Eine Ethno-Soziologische Untersuchung, S-Grafenhage. Den Haag: Muton Co.
Selected pages (69-78).
1904 Tobi in Westmikronesien, eine deutsche Insel mit acht Namen. Globus 86:13-15.
Title translates as "Tobi in Western Micronesia, a German Island With Eight Names." In German.
Religion und Sprache der Tobiinsulaner. Globus 87: 14-17.
Title translates as "On the Religion and Speech of the Tobi Islanders." In German.
der Tobi-Insel (Deutsch-Westmikronesien). Globus 87: 113-117.
Title translates as "The Inhabitants of Tobi Island." In German.
1901 Flaggenhissen auf der insel Tobi und dem Helen Riff (Westkarolinen). Deutches Kolonialblatt 12-15 August 1:545-546.
Raising the German flag on Tobi and Helen Reef in 1901. In German.
|1906 Die Bewohner der Westkarolinen.
Title translates as "The Inhabitants of the Western Carolines." Contains photographs of Tobians. In German.
1960 The Discovery of the Pacific Islands. Oxford University Press. Reprinted 1985. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Comprehsive history of European first sightings, including that of Tobi. Selected pages.
1938 Ethnographical Notes From Southwestern Micronesia: Report on Local Customs of Togobei and Sonsol. Minzukugaku-Kenkyujo, Tokyo (Japanese Journal of Ethnology) 4(2):72-101.
English synopsis. There is some question about the title. This trip was made in 1934. In Japanese.
|1945 Mikuroneshia No Fundo to
Mingur. Tokyo: Shookoo Shoin. 517 pp.
Title translates as "Micronesia: nature and artifacts." English summary. Photographs of monkeymen and drawings of artifacts. In Japanese.
1948 Handbook on the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands: A Handbook for Use in Training and Administration. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Department of the Navy. 68 pp.
Contains population and other data. Selected pages.
|1939 Terraces of the South Sea
Islands Under the Japanese Mandate. Nihon Gakushiin. Proceedings of the
Japan Academy 15:139-141.
Contains information about Tobis geography.
1988 A Guidebook to the Palau Islands. Koror, Palau: Neco Tours. 167 pp.
Contains outrageous misinformation about Tobi.
1998 Protest at Ngerkebesang. Tia Belau 7(5 March 14-28):1,10. Koror.
Trouble in Palau over Eang land.
1997 In den Weiten des Pazifik - Mikronesien: ausgewählte Objekte aus den Sammlungen der Museen für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig und Dresden. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
Objects from Palau, Sonsorol, and Tobi. Selected pages.
1944 Tobi Island. JICPOA 53-44,
Lesser Carolines. April 15. U.S. Government.
1944 North Pacific Ocean, West Caroline Islands--Helen Reef. 1st Ed. Washington, DC: Hydrographic Office.
U.S. Trust Territory of the
|United States Commercial Company,
1965 Maps of the Islands of Micronesia. Reissued.
Uyehara [No first name given]
Vitarelli, Margo, and Faustina
|Wahl, Cecilia Hendricks
2000 Number One Pacific Island. Bloomington, IN: Woodcrest Publishing.
Contains two Tobi-related photographs from Angaur dating from immediate post-war period when several Tobian fisherman helped to feed the workers in the newly-opened phosphate mine. The first shows what appears to be a Tobian monkeyman and the second, what looks like a Tobian canoe.
1963 Carterets Voyage Round the World 1766-1769. Hakluyt Society. Second series. No. 124. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reports visits to Mapia, called Joseph Freewill Islands by Carteret, and sightings of Helen Reef, called Bad Mens Shoal by Carteret, and Tobi which he called Hummock Island. Selected pages.
|Ward, R. Gerard
1966 American Activities in the Central Pacific 1790-1870. Ridgewood, NJ: The Gregg Press.
Reprints of many of the original newspaper accounts of the wreck of the Mentor and the fate of her crew. Selected pages.
1979 Flight of the Llel a Meduu Kedam. Guam and Micronesia Glimpses 19(2):83-86.
An account of Patricio Tahemaremoho kite fishing at Malakal.
Wavell, Barbara B.
Sacred to Souvenir: The Squatting Figure as a Motif in Micronesian Art.
Tribal Arts: Summer/Autumn, pp. 62-75.
Many spectacular photographs of monkeymen and a discussion of this interesting art form.
|1996 The Art of Micronesia, Catalogue of an Exhibition at Maitland Art Center, 05/10/96-07/07/96. Maitland Art Center. Maitland, Florida.|
Some Observations on Music-Language Relationship in the Chant of Tobi and Sonsorol, South-Western Islands of Micronesia. In Proceedings (Abstract of Papers) of the 11th Pacific Science Congress, August 22-September 10, 1966. Volume 9.
Abstract of the paper.
Updated: June 15, 2019